Magnet+, the new name for Magnet Networks and AirSpeed Telecom, unveils ‘Contract Freedom Business Broadband – Forever’ and free six month hosted voice package for all customers

  • Magnet+ says seismic moves are aimed at disrupting entire Irish business connectivity marketplace
  • Unparalleled customer service means customers will always speak to a real person not a ‘bot’ thanks to ‘People Powered Connectivity’ focus

Sister companies Magnet Networks, Ireland’s largest independent connectivity network, and AirSpeed Telecom, market leader in the provision of fibre and wireless connectivity services across the country, will now operate under one single name – Magnet+.

Magnet Networks was acquired in December 2020 by Speed Fibre Group, the owner of AirSpeed Telecom, and following an extensive strategic review of the business by a new leadership team, a decision was made to combine the wealth of expertise, talent and skill sets across the two retail businesses to create one unified brand – Magnet+.

An ambitious strategic growth plan is now in place, with Magnet+ focused on not just transforming its proposition as a business, but also the industry in which it operates. The business is committed to disrupting the Irish telecommunications sector by flinging the traditional telecommunications rule book into the recycling bin and creating a seismic cultural shift that the industry has never seen before in Ireland.

Thanks to the Pandemic, the absolute criticality of connectivity to businesses has become even more evident. With up to 100Gb of uninterrupted connectivity available, Magnet+ can deliver into every corner of every county in Ireland. With this in mind, the company has devised a series of commercial ‘moves’ to help their clients become even more productive, efficient and responsive. These moves, which will help ensure that Magnet+ becomes the telecommunications company that customers will always recommend to others, include:

  • Contract Freedom Business Broadband – Forever!

Magnet+ is introducing contract freedom on business broadband for all new customers.

This is the first offer of its kind in Ireland as most operators require a 12-month contract. If in the unlikely event that a customer wants to leave, they just have to give 30 days’ notice.

  • Free VOIP voice service for six months

This includes 1,000 Irish landline and 1,000 Irish mobile calling minutes per company per month. This service will be available to new customers and will also be offered as a free upgrade to existing hosted voice customers, as well as existing customers who would like to migrate to the Magnet+ VOIP hosted voice system. This equates to a saving of nearly €800 over six months for a company with 10 employees, or €3,660 for a company with 50 employees

  • A guarantee of absolute security, total reach and complete resiliency, meaning the customer will always be connected – come what may
  • Utilising the tagline ‘People Powered Connectivity’, Magnet+ is also guaranteeing that if a customer contacts the company, they will be speaking to a real person and not a ‘bot’. People are at the heart of everything Magnet+ does and they guarantee that their people will never let your people down
  • Magnet+ is also committed to simplifying and demystifying the telecommunications sector. Customers hear phrases like fixed line, fibre, wireless, mobile, wholesale and retail – and are often unsure as to what any of it means. They just know they need a service that works, at a price that suits. Magnet+ will simplify the process by using better communication tactics that ensure clients get the best connectivity solution to meet their specific needs

Magnet+ offers a full-suite of telecommunications solutions including dedicated connectivity, telecommunications, Wi-Fi and security as well as cloud services. By combining network-neutrality with world-class technical knowledge, Magnet+ can devise integrated telecommunications solutions utilising its fibre, wireless, 4G and 5G infrastructure to meet the exact needs of each client, ensuring outstanding connectivity that no other provider in Ireland is capable of delivering.

Over 20 new team members have joined Magnet+ already this year, bringing the combined number of employees to 82. A further 15 roles will be filled before the end of this year. A full contemporary refit of the office in Clonshaugh Industrial Estate in North Dublin has taken place, with all required Covid-19 measures implemented. In addition, the new post-covid hybrid working policy at Magnet+ outlines that team members can work from home for up to four days a week. There is just one mandatory in-office day required per week for employees, with the exception of essential workers whose role requires full time attendance.

John Delves, Managing Director of Magnet+, says the future of the Irish telecommunications sector is about to change drastically:

“Our sector is extremely conservative and isn’t very open to change. As a result, the industry has become extremely vanilla – will all the main operators behaving in exactly the same way. We’ve decided that customers deserve better and our plan is to instigate this badly needed change and totally revolutionise the way our industry does business. We’ve done our research and we know where the pain points are. Firstly, customer service from telecommunications companies is simply dismal. The existing players are obsessed with customer acquisition, but not with customer service and customers have come to expect nothing but underwhelming. We are going to change this.”

“Secondly, we all continually hear stories of grindingly slow connection speeds. This is unacceptable given the breadth of technology available today, and thanks to our extensive independent network and expertise, we will make this a thing of the past for our customers.”

“Covid has made us all realise that high-capacity, super-efficient connectivity is critical to the success of any business. Our purpose now is to expand the possibilities of what our clients can achieve. It’s a very exciting time for the entire team at Magnet+ and, importantly, our customers all I can say is – watch this space!”

For more information and regular updates, check out or

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1.5 million people confident to re-engage in society by attending concerts, clubs and sporting events – Core Consumer Mindset Report

  • 1.2m people would attend an indoor gig or nightclub
  • 1.5m people say they would attend an outdoor music festival or cultural event
  • 1.4m people have reconnected with friends by socialising indoors this month

Public confidence about returning to social activities that were previously restricted is steadily increasing and the sentiment is largely optimistic as 1.5m adults are ready to attend concerts, clubs and sporting events, according to the latest monthly Consumer Mindset Report from Core, Ireland’s largest marketing communications company.

With 1.4m people having already met friends for indoor dinner or drinks this month, it’s clear that reconnecting with friends has been a top priority for people as restrictions lifted. While 1.5m people would go to an outdoor festival or cultural event, the return of nightclubs and increased capacity at indoor gigs on October 22nd is eagerly anticipated by the Irish public with 1.2m people saying they are ready to dance indoors again.

The report also reveals interesting insights on how the workforce in Ireland are feeling about the “Return to the Workplace” which officially occurred on Monday 20th September.

  • 50% of workers had already returned to the workplace or office before the official date
  • 69% of those who have returned to the workplace say they approve of how their employer or workplace has handled the COVID-19 situation
  • 24% of workers say they are not yet ready to return to the workplace
  • 26% of workers plan to return to the workplace or office in “the next four weeks”

Speaking about these differing consumer mindsets of the public, Finian Murphy, Marketing Director with Core said:

There’s been a surge in the return of social norms and activities this month with over 1.4m people having already met friends for dinner or drinks indoors and a further 1.2m planning to. The pace at which Ireland’s   vaccination rate has grown has clearly increased public confidence, as society continues to re-open. There is also evidence to suggest that the majority of workers are confident in returning to the workplace, particularly those who approve of how their employer has handled the COVID-19 situation. With up to three-quarters of the workforce saying they plan to return to the workplace in the next four weeks, people are looking forward to reconnecting with colleagues face to face.”

“That said, with the continued easing of restrictions, businesses and brands will need to acknowledge that people will be judging whether a “return to normal” is a good thing for them or not, as we have seen varying levels of confidence, especially regarding the return to the workplace.”

The stats revealed the levels of concern about COVID-19 in Ireland are at their lowest ever this month, with just 34% of all adults “very or extremely concerned” about the pandemic. This is a drop from 37% in August 2021.

Methodology: Research was conducted between the 9th and the 20th of September interviewing 1,000 Irish adults online and representative of the adult population in Ireland.

To register to receive the full report, please visit

36% of people’s household income down since beginning of Covid-19 pandemic – new Core Personal Finance Research

36% of people’s household income down since beginning of Covid-19 pandemic – new Core Personal Finance Research

  • Average amount saved every month is €222, with 33% savings as a financial safety net, 26% saving for a holiday abroad and 22% saving for home improvements
  • 29% of workers financially impacted say Covid affected their decision on whether or not to have a child

DUBLIN, 14 September 2021

While 36% of people say their household income decreased since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of the population say their household income has remained the same (49%) or in fact increased (15%), according to the new Pandemic Personal Finance report from Core, Ireland’s largest marketing communications company.

The research shows that over one million workers were impacted by COVID-19 but as a result of dual-income households and state supports, most households were in a position to maintain their level of household income they had in March 2020.

Workers who have been impacted by COVID-19 are most likely to say the amount they save every month has decreased. 51% of this group say they save less than before COVID-19. In contrast, of those who’s employment has not been impacted, 53% say the amount they save every month has remained the same and a further 36% say the amount they save has increased.

The perceived average amount people save every month is €222, and notably those impacted by COVID-19 claim to save a little more (€251) compared to workers who were not impacted (€218).

Although 33% of people are saving as a financial safety net, 26% are planning a holiday with their savings and 22% ar saving for home improvements. For workers who’s income was impacted by COVID-19, 28% are saving for a house while 17% are saving for a car.

Of those who were impacted by COVID-19, 48% of people’s working hours were reduced by the pandemic and 28% of workers’ salaries were reduced while 8% are no longer in paid employment due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Other key statistics from the report include:

  • 45% of impacted workers say Covid-19 impacted their decision to purchase a vehicle
  • Some 29% of people impacted by COVID-19 said it delayed their decision to have a child.
  • 31% of impacted workers said it delayed plans to get married.

Speaking about these research findings, Core’s Marketing Director, Finian Murphy said:

“It is clear that Covid-19 pandemic has impacted our lives in a variety of ways. What stands out in our Pandemic Personal Finance report is Irish people are still intent on planning for the future despite a very changeable period.”

“Saving behaviour for younger people and families affected by the pandemic may be long-lasting with an initial focus on housing security, but subsequently building in financial security as legacy of 2008 recession and COVID-19 informs their approach to personal finances. For those who were not impacted by the pandemic, it is also clear to us that financial security remains important.”

To learn more about Core, please visit


2.5 hours of commuting time could be saved daily by drivers if they use a remote working location – NoCo and Trinity College Dublin research

  • 70% of people would consider moving their home location if they could remote work
  • 38% of people said spending more time in their local community would be a major benefit of working remotely
  • Remote working three days a week for a year could reduce a drivers CO2 emissions by approx. 670kg
  • 80% of people believe it’s possible for their employer to implement a hybrid work scheme post-Covid 19
  • When travelling to an office, 59% of people left home before 7:30am. When travelling to a remote location – 76% left after 7:30am

Drivers could save an average of 2.5 hours of commuting time every day by using a remote working location, according to new research conducted by NoCo, Ireland’s largest hybrid workspace network, and Trinity College Dublin. The research, which reveals interesting insights into how remote working hubs are impacting our commuting patterns and our carbon footprint, also shows that 70% of people would consider changing their home location as a result of the ability to work remotely.

A key focus of the research was to measure the potential carbon emissions savings as well as travel time savings. The results indicate that a switch to working from a remote working hub for just three days a week could save a driver up to 14 days of travel time a year, saving approx. 670kg of CO2. Public transport users would save almost 11 days of commuting time, saving the equivalent of 2.19kg CO2 from these public transport trips.

When travelling to their place of work, 59% of people left home before 7.30am however nearly 80% of people left after 7.30am when travelling to a remote location. 49% said they would consider buying an e-bike for their new trip to their local remote working hub and 14% said they would consider buying a push bicycle. 15% said they are now considering selling a car as a result of this new work dynamic.

38% of people said the ability to spend more time in their local community would be a major benefit if they could switch over to working from a remote hub. NoCo’s service has the potential to boost local economies and encourage more community engagement in towns across Ireland, as well as providing the more rural areas with the opportunity to prosper and grow, both economically and socially.

NoCo, who recently unveiled an expansion partnership with The National Association of Community Enterprise Centres’ (NACEC) and Enterprise Ireland, is now Ireland’s largest workspace network provider with remote working hubs in over 350 locations nationwide. The service enables companies to connect their team to a network of ‘close to home’ workspaces across Ireland via one membership, one monthly invoice and one point of contact.

While the study indicates a clear desire to have the option of remote working (80% of people believe it’s possible for their employer to implement a hybrid work scheme post-Covid 19), and highlights the potential environmental benefits that could come from it (on average those using a remote hub are travelling 60km less per day), it also revealed some issues that need to be addressed:

  • 78% of people said they experienced feelings of isolation as a result of working from home
  • 85% of people experienced Wi-Fi and general connectivity issues while working from home
  • 84% of people experienced problems with inadequate home office space or equipment

Brian Moran, co-founder of NoCo, said: “We are delighted to have worked alongside Trinity College Dublin to carry out this research. The slowdown of economic activities during the pandemic resulted in significant improvements to air quality and GHG emissions. At NoCo, we are preparing for the future which means addressing climate change. None of us can afford to ignore our carbon footprints anymore and we believe that the shift to remote working will help to meet Ireland’s national carbon targets, aswell as provide people with reduced commuting time and a better work/life balance”.

Prof Brian Caulfield, Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, said: “Our research clearly shows that remote working hubs may play an even more substantial role than we thought in reducing carbon emissions in the transport field from commuting. From a personal-time perspective, the findings of the survey demonstrate that remote workers are able to spend significantly more time at home and substantially less time commuting”.

News Ireland brands awarded Gold Standard Certification by IAB Ireland

News Ireland has become one of just five companies in Ireland to be awarded the Gold Standard Certification by the Internet Advertising Bureau Ireland.

News Ireland, which consists of The Sunday Times, The Times Ireland edition, The Irish Sun and the wireless group of radio stations (Dublin’s Q102, FM104, Cork’s 96FM, C103, Live95FM and LMFM) now joins DMG Media Ireland, Core, Google and Facebook in becoming Gold Standard certified in Ireland. 

The Gold Standard, which was developed by IAB UK, was adopted by IAB Ireland in February 2021. This set of digital advertising standards is recognised globally as a powerful initiative, which has evolved to keep pace with a fast-changing industry and continues to adapt to help drive a healthy, sustainable digital advertising ecosystem.

The Gold Standard has four main aims:

  • To uphold brand safety
  • To tackle ad fraud
  • To improve the digital advertising experience
  • To help comply with the GDPR and ePrivacy law

News Ireland is now Gold Standard certified after meeting the compliance criteria relevant for their company type. This includes TAG (Trustworthy Accountability Group) Brand Safety certification, as well as providing detailed proofs of compliance across the other three IAB standards. IAB Ireland member companies have six months from registration to become Gold Standard certified.

The support of brands is key to the Gold Standard, with Aer Lingus, An Post, AIB, Laya Healthcare and Vodafone leading the way as Brand Supporters committing to working with Gold Standard certified partners.

David Monaghan, Head of Commercial, News UK & Ireland and Chair of IAB Ireland, said: “News Ireland is proud to have met the rigorous standards of the Gold Standard in Ireland. High standards help to build trust and transparency with our advertisers and users, and we are delighted to work collaboratively with other IAB Ireland members to ensure that the highest standards are adhered to in our Industry.”

Suzanne McElligott, CEO of IAB Ireland, said: “We are delighted to announce that News Ireland is now Gold Standard certified in Ireland. The enthusiasm that IAB Ireland’s members have shown in the adoption of the Gold Standard here proves the desire and commitment of the Irish industry to fight ad fraud, maximise brand safety, improve users’ experience and protect users’ privacy. The leadership of companies like News Ireland in adopting the Gold Standard exemplifies our members’ commitment to observing the highest global digital ad standards.”

Further information on the Gold Standard in Ireland is available at

Librarians and library book club members nationwide called on to nominate their favourite Irish author in new ‘Library Association of Ireland Author of the Year’ category at the An Post Irish Book Awards

  • New category is designed to acknowledge an Irish author whose work has contributed significantly to the reader experience and enjoyment of Irish books during 2021
  • Bookstation, Ireland’s best value chain of book and stationery shops, also announced as new sponsor of ‘Bookstation Lifestyle Book of the Year’ category

The ‘Library Association of Ireland Author of the Year’ is today being unveiled as a new category for the An Post Irish Book Awards 2021, the annual highlight of the Irish literary calendar that celebrates and promotes the very best of Irish writing talent.

The ‘Library Association of Ireland Author of the Year’ category is designed to acknowledge an Irish author whose work has contributed significantly to the reader experience and enjoyment of Irish books during 2021. Nominations are uniquely open to librarians and library book club members nationwide to acknowledge their dedication, passion, and commitment to the literary community in Ireland.

To cast their vote, librarians and library book club members will be invited by The Library Association of Ireland to visit: and nominate their favourite Irish author. With over 400 libraries, including public libraries, academic libraries, school libraries and special libraries, and almost 200 library book clubs across Ireland, nominations are expected to be in their thousands.

Nominations for the ‘Library Association of Ireland Author of the Year’ will close on Saturday 18 September and a shortlist consisting of six finalists will be revealed on Thursday 21 October. The overall winner will be announced at the An Post Irish Book Awards on Tuesday 23 November 2021.

Each year, the An Post Irish Book Awards bring together a vast community who are passionate about books – readers, authors, booksellers, publishers, and librarians – to recognise the very best of new and established Irish writing talent and 2021 will be no different. The ‘Library Association of Ireland Author of the Year’ will now be added to the wide range of other categories including Novel of the Year, Children’s (Junior and Senior), Cookery, Crime Fiction, Popular Fiction, Nonfiction, Lifestyle, Sports, Short Story, Poetry, Teen and Young Adult and Irish Language. It is the second new category to be added to this year’s awards, alongside the recently announced ‘An Post Bookshop of the Year.”

Cathal McCauley, President of the Library Association of Ireland, said:Libraries and reading have been an important part of Ireland’s response to COVID-19 and reading has never been so important for many people who were subject to various restrictions. Many libraries saw demand grow by more than 300% during the past year. Reading and books allow us to learn, travel, and live wherever we are. In recognition of this, the Library Association of Ireland is delighted to sponsor this new award that acknowledges the enormous contribution Irish authors have made to the reader experience and enjoyment of Irish books during 2021 as nominated by librarians and library book club members.”

The Library Association of Ireland is the professional body representing libraries and librarianship in Ireland. The objectives of the association are to promote and develop high standards of librarianship and of library and information services in Ireland, and to secure greater co-operation between libraries.

Also revealed today, Bookstation, Ireland’s best value chain of book and station shops, is the new sponsor of the ‘Bookstation Lifestyle Book of the Year’ category which broadly covers a range of non-fiction titles.

Alan Johnston, Marketing Director of Bookstation, says: ‘We are very proud to be sponsoring the Bookstation Lifestyle Book of the Year award for the next three years. Every year the An Post Irish Book Awards reward and celebrate both exceptional writing and publishing in this country. As an Irish book chain, we are delighted that our passion for bookselling will now be reflected on this national stage as sponsors of a new award for books that enhance the lives of Irish people.’

The shortlist for the An Post Irish Book Awards 2021 will be announced on Thursday 21 October, while the winners will be announced on Tuesday 23 November.A television programme will be broadcast on RTÉ One television on Wednesday 8December and will culminate in one of the 2021 winning titles being announced as the ‘An Post Irish Book of the Year 2021’.

An Post is also continuing with their hugely successful #ReadersWanted campaign, celebrating the value and joy of reading and encouraging everyone to pick up more books, more often. Simply search for the hashtag online to get involved.

Facebook: @AnPostIBAS

Instagram: @anpost_irishbookawards

Twitter: @AnPostIBAS

For a range of reading recommendations, check out

79% of Irish people tune into live radio everyday compared to 25% who stream music and 5% who listen to podcasts daily – new JNLR ‘Radio and the Irish Audio Market’ report

  • 3.17m listeners tune in to radio for a total of 13.1 million hours each weekday.
  • Almost seven in ten 15–24-year-olds listen to live radio every weekday and 7% listen to podcasts
  • Smart phone ownership has risen from 82% in 2018 to 86% this year making it easier to access audio anytime and anywhere
  • Ownership of voice activated audio devices, such as Alexa, has almost trebled over past three years

The JNLR’s ‘Radio and the Irish Audio Market” report, compiled by Ipsos/MRBI shows radio is in a healthy position in 2021 with 3,171,000 listeners tuning in on a daily basis.  Despite the proliferation of media content, platforms and devices, the research shows that Irish radio has maintained its significant impact on Irish audiences over the years – listeners tune into radio for a total of 13.1 million hours daily – on average each listener is listening for 4 hours and 16 minutes each weekday and for more than three hoursamong the 15-24 year old audience.

Irish listeners  love live radio  with 92% saying they listen weekly, far exceeding the weekly audience figures for on-demand online audio (53%). This on-demand online figure includes podcasting – 17% say they listen to podcasts each week increasing to 30% among the younger 15-24 year old group.

The figures also indicate that rather than supplanting live radio, over time music streaming services are replacing our personal music archives such as downloads, CD’s or vinyl.  Weekly listenership to these archives is down from 38% in 2018 to 22% in 2021 while the proportion  listening to streaming music services, such as Spotify, has risen by a similar level, from 22% to 37% over the same period.

At home is by far the most popular place to listen to audio content, with 75% of Adults 15+  listening in this location daily. 34% of people listen in the car every day, while 9% listen in a work or school/college environment and 8% while out walking/running or cycling.  In terms of devices used, to listen to audio, 72% use a radio or music player on a typical day. 

Widespread ownership of smart phones, now at 86% amongst the Irish public, facilitates access to audio anytime and anywhere, while ownership of voice activated technology devices such as Alexa or Google Home has almost trebled since 2018, growing from 11% to 30%. Ownership of these voice activated devices is significantly higher among younger age groups (48% among 15–24-year-olds.)

Other key statistics from the report:

  • 92% listen to live radio on a weekly basis.
  • 36% of people listen to music weekly via YouTube
  • Live radio has an estimated share of 78.8% of time spent listening to all audio on a daily basis and 53.2% share among 15-24 year olds.
  • Among this younger 15-24 year old audience, music streaming (Spotify, Apple Music etc..) has a time spent share of 25.2% and You Tube music has 14.2% share

The next detailed JNLR listenership report will be published at the beginning of December 2021.

Scott Williams, Chair of the JNLR Committee, said:

“Irish people love radio, as the JNLR data consistently shows. 92% of Irish adults listen to radio each week. Access to audio has never been easier with growing consumption on digital devices. The Irish audio market is dynamic and sophisticated and Irish radio remains the most significant audio provider in the country notwithstanding the rise in popularity of streaming and podcasting.”

The JNLR Committee members are:

  • Scott Williams, Wireless (Chairman)
  • Barry Dooley, AAI
  • Andrew Robinson, BAI
  • Helen O’Rourke, IAPI
  • Katie Boylan, IRS+
  • Gavin Deans, Media Central
  • Diarmuid O Leary, Red FM
  • Gareth Ivory, RTE
  • Dan Healy, RTE
  • Chris Doyle, Bauer Media
  • Brian McCarthy, Urban Media

GSK enhances information service for former residents of mother and baby homes

Simplified information request service established ~

~ Publication of nine trial summary documents ~

Wednesday, 1 September 2021

GSK has established an enhanced information service for former residents of mother and baby homes regarding trials that took place between 1934 and 1973 in response to the issues raised following the publication of the Commission of Investigation’s report.

This enhanced information service consists of:

  • A more simplified information request service.
  • The publication of trial summary documents for nine separate trials – vaccine trials A to G, as they are referred to in the Commission’s report, as well as two infant milk formula trials.

GSK recognises that many survivors are understandably seeking to access their personal information. The company has spent time reflecting on its response to the Commission’s report and has endeavoured to find a meaningful way to assist survivors and their families. GSK believes these measures undertaken to simplify the information request service and publish trial summary documents represents the most valuable way to support those seeking further transparency in relation to the trials. 

Full details of how to access the information request service and the trial summary documents are now available on our website.

Information Request Service:

For some years GSK has provided an information service to survivors who request that a search of the records is performed to identify what, if any, personal information GSK holds about them. Demand for this service – known as a ‘subject access request’ – has increased since the publication of the Commission of Investigation’s report. To ensure the information service is as user-friendly as possible, GSK has worked to simplify the process and details of how to access it are available on our website.

GSK wants to ensure that survivors who believe they may have been a participant in a trial are aware they have a statutory right to submit an information request to the company in relation to their personal information.

It is important to note, however, that the records are not complete for every trial. While some of the individual clinical trial records do contain important identifying information such as names and dates of birth, this information is not available for all trials. This means it is not possible to verify the identity of every participant and part of the reason why GSK has also published trial summary documents with information about the development and, where applicable, the licensing history of the trial products.

Trial Summary Documents:

The trial summary documents are also available at and contain information relating to nine separate trials – vaccine trials A to G, as they are referred to in the Commission’s report, and two infant milk formula trials.

The documentation has been collated from GSK’s archives in London as well as other published sources to evaluate, as far as possible, the history of the vaccine or milk products after their trials were conducted by researchers in mother and baby homes.

GSK would like to re-emphasise its sympathies to the women, children and families affected by the issues raised in the Commission’s report and sincerely hopes the work undertaken to enhance its information service and publish trial summaries will better support those searching for more information about their personal experience or that of a family member.